x-ray wheatA soft X-ray system using a Lixi fluoroscope that has a 62.5 µm resolution detection screen was used to acquire X-ray images of wheat kernels at two energy levels. The X-ray images of wheat kernels were digitized into 8-bit gray scale images at a resolution of 125 µm. The purpose of this research was to investigate the efficiency of dual-energy X-ray image analysis for classifying vitreous kernels in durum wheat. Algorithms were written to subtract the two energy level images and to extract the histogram and textural features from the subtracted image. Data from the subtracted images of both vitreous and non vitreous kernels images are inputted to another algorithm that determined the distribution of starch content of both the vitreous and non vitreous kernels. This technology makes the soft X-ray system an effective tool to be employed in grain industry for classification of wheat kernels as well as for insect damage identification.

WheatThe potential of classifying vitreous and non vitreous durum wheat kernels using a real time soft X-ray system and a transmitted light system was determined in this study. Durum wheat kernels at 14%, 15% and 16% M.C were used as samples for this study. Algorithms were used to extract the histogram and textural features, histogram and shape moments from the X-ray images and densitometric, haralick and histogram features from the transmitted light images of wheat kernels. Statistical classifiers were used to differentiate vitreous and non vitreous kernels using the extracted features from the X-ray and transmitted light images. Classification accuracies and the effect of moisture content in the wheat kernels for the soft X-ray system and the transmitted light system were determined.

Design and development work were carried out to improve the traditional stove for rural areas of India. Socio economic issues including the cost factor and the source of fuel were studied. Farmer’s needs and requirements for the stove were taken in to account. A careful design was carried out to maximize the heat transfer by modifying the pot holder and by introducing baffles to create turbulence. Dampers were introduced to control and optimize the airflow and a metal casing was designed to give strength and durability. Chimneys and Grate were also designed for the stove for removing smoke and ash from the stove. This project was funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

X-ray CT systemA high resolution X-ray CT system with a resolution of 120 µm was used to scan air paths inside grain bulks. The bulk grains of wheat, barley, flax seed, peas and mustard were scanned along horizontal and vertical directions. Algorithms were written for the analysis of X-ray CT images to explain the reported airflow resistance difference along the horizontal and vertical directions of grain bulks. Total airspace, air path distribution and size of air paths were determined from the image processing algorithms. Morphological information from the tomographic images showed that the size and number of air paths vary between horizontal and vertical directions of grain bulks.

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